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Kidney Infection

(Infection, Kidney; Pyelonephritis)

Definition

Kidney infections may occur in one or both kidneys.
The kidneys remove waste from the body through urine. They also balance the water and mineral content in the blood. An infection may prevent them from working properly.
Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
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Causes

Kidney infections are caused by a bacteria. The specific type of bacteria can vary. The bacteria most often comes from an untreated bladder infection .

Risk Factors

Bacteria may be introduced to the urinary tract and ultimately the kidneys by:
Other medical conditions that increase your risk of infection include:

Symptoms

Symptoms of kidney infection may include:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A kidney infection is diagnosed with urine tests . The urine is examined for:
You may need further tests if the infection does not go away with treatment or if you have had several infections. These tests will be done to see if there are problems with the kidney, ureters, and bladder. Images of these structures can be taken by:

Treatment

Complications from untreated or poorly treated kidney infection can lead to:
You will be treated with antibiotics. Be sure to take all of the medication. Antibiotics may need to be delivered through an IV. This may require a stay in the hospital.

Prevention

Surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux in children may reduce risk for pyelonephritis.
Since kidney infection is often a complication of a bladder infection. You can prevent bladder infections if you:

RESOURCES

National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca

References

Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 1, 2014. Accessed August 13, 2014.

Pyelonephritis: Kidney infection. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases and Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/pyelonephritis/index.aspx. Updated June 11, 2012. Accessed August 13, 2014.

Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 16, 2014. Accessed August 13, 2014.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in men. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 27, 2014. Accessed August 13, 2014.

3/6/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nikolaidis P, Casalino DD, Remer EM. American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Acute Pyelonephritis. National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=37923. Updated 2012.

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